individual differences in intelligence psychology

<> 6.2 Changing Behaviour Through Reinforcement and Punishment: Operant Conditioning, 31. Scott McGreal is a psychology researcher with a particular interest in individual differences, especially in personality and intelligence. �����c����� kz� (1995). Although personality and intelligence both provide useful ways of summarizing consequential individual differences in human functioning, they are not designed to answer the same kinds of questions. stream As infants, boys and girls show no or few differences in spatial or counting abilities, suggesting that the differences occur at least in part as a result of socialization (Spelke, 2005). endobj Lubinski, D., & Benbow, C. P. (2006). Inheriting shame: The story of eugenics and racism in America. 13.1 Conception and Prenatal Development, 64. “The psychology of individual differences is largely the study of group differences. endstream Personality focuses on “content” questions addressing the substance, organization, or meaning of a person’s thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and actions. In T. Balchin, B. Hymer, & D. J. Matthews (Eds. That is, they argued that the negative impact of race on standardized tests may be caused, at least in part, by the performance situation itself. 1. <> Choose from 500 different sets of psychology intelligence individual differences flashcards on Quizlet. In Canada, capital punishment was abolished in 1976. stream x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� �z@� �0& /Resources 30 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 68 >> Thirdly, intelligence tests themselves may be worded or administered in ways that favour the experiences of some groups, thus maximizing their scores, while failing to represent the experiences of other groups, thus lowering their scores. Definitions of individual differences point out the reality of traits that distinguish individuals. Characteristics that define individual differences can be classified into four main categories: Learning Style, Aptitude, Personality and Emotional Intelligence. Students will especially appreciate the quality of exposition that renders often difficult-to-grasp topics easy to understand, including importantly how they relate to the broader field of psychological science. 29 0 obj Acceleration: Meeting the academic and social needs of students. Sternberg, R. J. �!>� o Stop and think to encourage students to consolidate their understanding and reflect upon key issues . /Resources 30 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 67 >> �����c����� ks� �L� Download Psychology Of Individual Differences Intelligence full book in PDF, EPUB, and Mobi Format, get it for read on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. are being studied, under individual differences.” �\ |�$ Treating Psychological Disorders, 85. Evans, G. (2018, March 2). 88. 18 0 obj 3.2 Our Brains Control Our Thoughts, Feelings, and Behaviour, 14. 4 0 obj New York, NY: Pantheon Books. endobj 16 Optimism. It is often assumed that schoolchildren who are labelled as gifted may have adjustment problems that make it more difficult for them to create social relationships. Although these fields focus on very distinct topics, they all try to understand what makes individuals vary according to their personality, cultural background, cognitive abilities, extreme disorders, and age. endobj Vox: The Big Idea. Psychology - 1st Canadian Edition by Sally Walters is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. The theories are grouped into four major theory types: (1) psychometric theories; (2) cognitive theories; (3) cognitive-contextual theories; and (4) biological theories. 2. �z@� �0& 7.1 Social Cognition: Making Sense of Ourselves and Others, 35. Because black students are aware of the stereotype that blacks are intellectually inferior to whites, this stereotype might create a negative expectation, which might interfere with their performance on intellectual tests through fear of confirming that stereotype. /Resources 30 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 67 >> Research has found that stereotype threat effects can help explain a wide variety of performance decrements among those who are targeted by negative stereotypes. �!>� � Genetic studies of genius: The gifted group at mid-life (Vol. �z@� �0&�2�Գ��ɹ Human intelligence - Human intelligence - Cognitive theories: During the era dominated by psychometric theories, the study of intelligence was influenced most by those investigating individual differences in people’s test scores. Chou, V. (2017, April, 17). <> Having extremely high IQ is clearly less of a problem than having extremely low IQ, but there may also be challenges to being particularly smart. Online: Twitter , Facebook Not in our genes: Biology, ideology, and human nature (1st ed.). This AP Psychology practice test covers testing & individual differences. � �����c����� k�� In S. Kitayama & D. Cohen (Eds. (2005). endstream Assumptions about sex differences in intelligence are increasingly challenged in the research. While intelligence is one of the most talked about subjects in psychology, there is no standard definition of what exactly constitutes intelligence.Some researchers have suggested that intelligence is a single, general ability. Individual differences in Intelligence Intelligence like many other psychological traits seems to be distributed in the population in such a way that most people make scores in the middle range while only a few people make very high or very low scores. <> The history of this controversy is interesting; for further reading, see William Saletan (2018) and Gavin Evans (2018). Intelligence: What is indigenous to India and what is shared? Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. 15.2 Insanity: A History of Mental Illness, 82. <> x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� Even groups who typically enjoy advantaged social status can be made to experience stereotype threat. As you might expect based on our discussion of intelligence, children who are gifted have higher scores on general intelligence (g), but there are also different types of giftedness. Although their bell curves overlap considerably, there are also average group differences for members of different racial and ethnic groups. This dark chapter in Canadian history shows how intelligence testing can be used to justify political and racist ideology. 2000 years ago Plato stated that the two persons are born exactly alike but each differs from the other by natural endowments, where one will be exited for occupation purpose and where as other will be for another … <> Because intelligence is such an important individual difference dimension, psychologists have invested substantial effort in creating and improving measures of intelligence, and these tests are now the most accurate of all psychological tests. endobj .� In some cases, these beliefs may be positive, and they have the effect of making us feel more confident and thus better able to perform tasks. .� It is important to realize that although IQ is heritable, this does not mean that group differences are caused by genetics. Types of Individual Differences: • 1. 14.4 Behaviourist and Social-Cognitive Perspectives on Personality, 74. 9.1 Defining and Measuring Intelligence, 43. Although IQ tests might have high reliability and validity, understanding the role of culture is as, if not more, important in forming the bigger picture of an individual’s intelligence. This produces a bell-shaped distribution, a curve called the normal probability curve. Schmader, T., Johns, M., & Forbes, C. (2008). 3.4 Putting It All Together: The Nervous System and the Endocrine System, 17. /Resources 30 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 67 >> Retrieved from Do you think that we should give intelligence tests? x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� endobj <> endobj 270–301). Development of spatial cognition. �z@� �0& Figure 9.7. �!> In addition to disagreements about the basic nature of intelligence, psychologists have spent a great amount of time and energy debating the various influences on individual intelligence. endstream Differences in intelligence: There are differences in intelligence level among different individuals. People with Down syndrome typically exhibit a distinctive pattern of physical features, including a flat nose, upwardly slanted eyes, a protruding tongue, and a short neck. All chapters have been extensively revised to include the latest research. At various points throughout recent history, researche… � endobj Sex differences in intrinsic aptitude for mathematics and science? <> In summary, although there is no definitive answer to why IQ bell curves differ across racial and ethnic groups, and most experts believe that environment is important in pushing the bell curves apart, genetics can also be involved. ��� ����F� ÛE�Rƒ+p��r�t� LV��5BH�4Z�'fS$-#=BX�����|��X���*����� J0 Define stereotype threat, and explain how it might influence scores on intelligence tests. Engaging in these behaviours takes cognitive capacity away from the task. Johns, M., Schmader, T., & Martens, A. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39(1), 83–90. 6.4 Using the Principles of Learning in Everyday Life, VII. 3.1 Neurons, Neurotransmitters, and Hormones, 13. x�5�K The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) released its Education at a Glance 2013 report where Canada ranked first among 34 OECD countries with adults who had attained a tertiary (i.e., post-secondary) education, reporting 51% of 25- to 64-year-olds in Canada attained a post-secondary education in 2011 (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2013). Study of mathematically precocious youth after 35 years: Uncovering antecedents for the development of math-science expertise. x���qR�N���^���ޤz��'�=��IjO�o���00���.�!���Da"�0B�!L�&B!���Da"�0B�!L�&B!���Da"�0B�!L�&B!���Da"��M�K�m6�v~���島�a[Ƕ�r]=������õ��&B!���Da"���E�}�km@�N�n�g���Vͪ��FR`$�0B�!L�&B!��2E�s2`̣(귪�~��7+��2B�!L�&B!���Da� Oi4#7�i�f��T���r1#!���Da"�0B�!��%Z\ze�Mm��>#!���Da"�0B�!l�)��|��n����1_-�2B�!L�&B!���Sq�S-f>� ��蹊3E�!L�&B!����NQ\��&���W�����YFB!���Da"�0B��'z�vJ�1���=����G��#!���Da"�0B�!l�=5����Ys -��bڠ���O2-������2B�!L�&B!���DaWy(S=jqtO���kt0��/����9�2B�!L�&B!���F����]�km@���-�����6dz�#��Ha"�0B�!L�&B��k�g�z�k�ݮH�xN��+GQ��!���Da"�0BX`��~�����j�۽�=��������O�&B!���Da�_���a�׵\����yy�F��dO?u��EFB!���Da"�0B�(S��] >> 1.2 Learning Style. %PDF-1.5 There are also observed sex differences on some particular types of tasks. Belief in the policies of eugenics led the Canadian legislatures in Alberta (1928) and British Columbia (1933) to pass sterilization laws that led to the forced sterilization of approximately 5000 people deemed to be “unfit.” Those affected were mainly youth and women, and people of Aboriginal or Metis identity were disproportionately targetted. Although doing so may help the gifted kids (Colangelo & Assouline, 2009), it also may isolate them from their peers and make such provisions unavailable to those who are not classified as gifted. Psychological Review, 115(2), 336–356. There lies an assumption about the universal nature of human behaviour in contrast to which psychologists after analyzing human behaviour have identified the individual differences present in human behaviour with respect to thoughts, emotions, personalities and behaviour. Social Cognition, 21(3), 167–193. Spelke, E. S. (2005). NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 1 Intelligence And Aptitude NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED 1. STUDY. Psychometric theories derive from studying individual differences in test performance on cognitive tests. Sex differences in cognitive abilities (2nd ed.). This chapter reviews major theories of intelligence. Explain how intelligence testing can be used to justify political or racist ideologies. 734–776). 547–568). <> endstream �����c����� kl� <> 25 0 obj x��Z�rG���+rI:�R峲F� ����K=&��/ �(� Esן>�ܛ B�D(l�B�}����z���5�ףo�F/_[c����&S�?|��J�4.V\ݍ�X�5g���q�a6W��xg�G'?�=��36�W���+$����Db;�5�ײ����e��5΄XaE�V�^�����1i=]���`S:�����f�\���D����r�y������v9_�R�A��xK�wM�qU�\(�Y�[�t�e7]���ɜ-V뎄/��\]�h��m���Yu�����L�C������U�̣������7Y33�? 5). One cause of mental retardation is Down syndrome. Cognitive pattern in men and women is influenced by fluctuations in sex hormones. Firstly, the concept of race as a biological category is problematic. 13.5 Early and Middle Adulthood: Building Effective Lives, 68. /Resources 30 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 67 >> stream Explain how very high and very low intelligence is defined and what it means to have them. This cross-sectional study (N = 325) investigated the relationship between the Dark Triad personality traits and the perception of artificial intelligence (AI) risk.Narrow AI risk perception was measured based on recently identified perceived risks in the public. Scott McGreal is a psychology researcher with a particular interest in individual differences, especially in personality and intelligence. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1213–1227. stream Although intelligence tests may not be culturally biased, the situation in which one takes a test may be. On the cognitive side, individuals who are experiencing stereotype threat show an increased vigilance toward the environment as well as increased attempts to suppress stereotypic thoughts. � Individual differences in intelligence can come from sources that at first seem innocuous. Another study of young adolescents who had even higher IQs found that these students ended up attending graduate school at a rate more than 50 times higher than that in the general population (Lubinski & Benbow, 2006). Colangelo, N., & Assouline, S. (2009). Education is one major factor which brings individual differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Mental retardation is a generalized disorder ascribed to people who have an IQ below 70, who have experienced deficits since childhood, and who have trouble with basic life skills, such as dressing and feeding themselves and communicating with others (Switzky & Greenspan, 2006). Yudell, M. (2014). �����c����� ke� �z@� �0& investigated than any others in psychology, partly because of their uniquely important effects on people's educational prospects and prospects in life generally, and partly because of their controversial social implications. Individual differences in intelligence can come from sources that at first seem innocuous. endobj Laws, such as the Canadians with Disabilities Act, have made it illegal to discriminate on the basis of mental and physical disability, and there has been a trend to bring the mentally disabled out of institutions and into our workplaces and schools. Give your ideas about the practice of providing accelerated classes to children listed as “gifted” in high school. One end of the distribution of intelligence scores is defined by people with very low IQ. 10.3 Long-Term Memory: Encoding and Storage, 57. It is generally accepted that some of this variation is due to differences in genes and some to “environment”—that is, to differences in people's experiences. �z@� �0&�2�Գ��ɹ � One of the most egregious examples was the spread of eugenics, the proposal that one could improve the human species by encouraging or permitting reproduction of only those people with genetic characteristics judged desirable. Intelligence Unit 3 > Individual Differences Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. endobj /Resources 28 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 110 >> Psychology teachers. For example, The Encyclopedia of Social Psychology (Baumeister & Vohs, 2007) defines individual differences in terms of enduring psychological characteristics. What research evidence has helped you form your opinion. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� Chapter 7. /Resources 30 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 67 >> Intelligence takes many forms, ranging from country to country and culture to culture. stream This education brings a change in our attitude, behaviour, appreciations, Personality. �����ch����� {J It is thought that individual differences in intelligence may derive in part from differences in the rate of intake and processing of simple stimulus information. How do psychologists characterize and define intelligence? Of the sample, 7% earned doctoral degrees, 4% earned medical degrees, and 6% earned law degrees. Intelligence is defined by the culture in which it exists. �z@� �0&�2�Գ��ɹ 9 0 obj These discrepancies create stress and anxiety, and these emotions make it harder to perform well on the task. 17 Irrational Beliefs x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� <> 12.1 The History of Positive Psychology, 63. .� �!>� Firstly, the concept of race as a biological category is problematic. Stereotype lift. Get to the point GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) Psychology questions for your exams. �z@� �0&�2�Գ��ɹ New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores. �!>� ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the types and uses of intelligence test. <> �z@� �0& Chapter 16. .� Individual differences are the more-or-less enduring psychological characteristics that distinguish one person from another and thus help to define each person's individuality. There are many women who are better than the average man on spatial tasks, and many men who score higher than the average women in terms of emotional intelligence. <> AP Psychology- Intelligence (Testing and Individual Differences) Advanced Placement Psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24(6), 588–594. These are: (a) The […] Correlational psychology has been productive for decades in fields like personality psychology, social psychology, psychometrics, clinical psychology, and developmental psychology. These cover age group from 2 years to 18 years. (2002). The debate focuses on one of the major questions in psychology: Which is … What is important is to reduce the self doubts that are activated when we consider the negative stereotypes. One cause of mental retardation is Down syndrome, a chromosomal disorder leading to mental retardation caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome. How genetics is changing our understanding of ‘race.’ The New York Times: Opinion. endobj All traits of human beings like social, emotional and intellectual are controlled and modifies through proper education. Learning Style refers to the idea that every individual is different in regards to what manner of coaching or study is most useful for them (Pashler, et al., 2008). 23 0 obj Yet, this variability is the very essence of correlational or differential psychology. Choose from 500 different sets of psychology intelligence individual differences flashcards on Quizlet. 16 0 obj �\ }) �����c����� k�� Although personality and intelligence both provide useful ways of summarizing consequential individual differences in human functioning, they are not designed to answer the same kinds of questions. 14.5 Genetic and Environmental Influences on Personality, 77. <> endstream We no longer use terms such as moron, idiot, or imbecile to describe these people, although these were the official psychological terms used to describe degrees of mental retardation in the past. Stone, J. Education at a glance 2013: OECD indicators. Sex differences in intelligence allow us to make statements only about average differences and do not say much about any individual person. The individual differences of interest to cognitive psychologists are generally of two dis- Differences between men and women may be in part genetically determined, perhaps by differences in brain lateralization or by hormones (Kimura & Hampson, 1994; Voyer, Voyer, & Bryden, 1995), but nurture is also likely important (Newcombe & Huttenlocher, 2006). Individual differences innate ... wide range of human emotions and to recognize these states in others can help children develop compassion and emotional intelligence. Nature vs. Nurture in Intelligence The issue of what causes individual differences in intelligence goes beyond psychology, and involves moral, political, ethical, educational, social, physiological and statistical issues to name just a few. This is a reminder that group differences may be created by environmental variables but can also be reduced through appropriate environmental actions such as educational and training programs. endstream �z@� �0& � Vogel, G. (1996). .� Next: 9.3 Communicating With Others: Development and Use of Language, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. �\ � S ��ebbbbbN���������C`Y�X�X�X�X�X�X�;+��@�@�@�@�@���XV V V V V V�t,++++++p:������8� Terman, L. M., & Oden, M. H. (1959). endstream endobj endobj � In some cultures, it is seen as unfair and prejudicial to argue, even at a scholarly conference, that men and women might have different abilities in domains such as math and science and that these differences may be caused by context, environment, culture, and genetics. /Resources 45 0 R /Length 4698 /Filter /FlateDecode >> 43 0 obj Lewontin, R. C., Rose, S. P. R., & Kamin, L. J. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� This lesson will also help us understand how to assess such similarities or variations among individuals. This study classifies individuals by age, traits, sex, race, social class and so on, and observes the differences within and between those groups. 36 0 obj What are the potential positive and negative outcomes of doing so? In D. Kuhn, R. S. Siegler, W. Damon, & R. M. Lerner (Eds. endobj Boy With Down Syndrome by Vanellus Foto is used under a CC BY-SA 3.0 license; My Special Daughter With Her Special Smile by Andreas-photography is used under a CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 license. <> Brown, R., Croizet, J.-C., Bohner, G., Fournet, M., & Payne, A. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(4), 316–345. Los Altos, CA: William Kaufmann. �!>F Stone, J., Lynch, C. I., Sjomeling, M., & Darley, J. M. (1999). .� 16.3 Reducing Disorder by Changing the Social Situation. School achievement: Asia and Europe top in world, but reasons are hard to find. 7.2 Interacting With Others: Helping, Hurting, and Conforming, 36. Marx, D. M., & Roman, J. S. (2002). x���� �0EAc�='-���L���]�����&+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++X~9�gY�X�X�X�X�X��!��@�@�@�@�@���XV V V V V V V�� American Psychologist, 60(9), 950–958. �\ }* Knowing is half the battle: Teaching stereotype threat as a means of improving women’s math performance. �0D�=Ŝ 6��݊ Wording differences aside, these definitions are quite similar. 1.2 Learning Style. Kimura, D., & Hampson, E. (1994). endobj �����c����� k�� <> x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� �\ |�# Extending the concept of stereotype and threat to social class: The intellectual underperformance of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. In the United States, differences in the average scores of white and black Americans have been found consistently. endstream /Length 673 >> (2007). The purpose of the Society is to foster research on individual differences in temperament, intelligence, attitudes and abilities. /Resources 30 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 67 >> Learn psychology intelligence individual differences with free interactive flashcards. Although some people are naturally taller than others, since height is heritable, people who get plenty of nutritious food are taller than people who do not, and this difference is clearly due to environment. 3 0 obj Battling doubt by avoiding practice: The effects of stereotype threat on self-handicapping in white athletes. 9��uj&��G��8������؝!� &ɊWaI��{����rӭ��//��u�����r�p�-6��g�|s~�GS�A���N�����&9W�~'���U�Fr�1ǃX5�5�W�o� � endstream 33 0 obj endstream Switzky, H. N., & Greenspan, S. (2006). PLAY. Halpern, D. F., Benbow, C. P., Geary, D. C., Gur, R. C., Hyde, J. S., & Gernsbache, M. A. New York, NY: Routledge. An integrated process model of stereotype threat effects on performance. 7.3 Working With Others: The Costs and Benefits of Social Groups, 39. /SMask 44 0 R /Length 2128 >> These include innate differences in intelligence, differences in social and economic background, variations in past learning experiences, and perhaps variations in the level of … Magnitude of sex differences in spatial abilities: A meta-analysis and consideration of critical variables. �\ |�% EI is defined as the ability to recognize and discern own and other people’s emotions and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior. Aronson, J., Lustina, M. J., Good, C., Keough, K., & Steele, C. M. (1999). You will recall how one of the main concerns of modern psychology has been the study of individual differences from the time of Galton. Ideas for an evolving disability in the 21st century. �z@� �0& <> �����c����� k�� :!�*F���Z�g>"����+�Vo�0n0����87>��6��ckb]�u��+��. 15 The Application of Personality and Intelligence in Education and the Workplace. Differences. Mental retardation is divided into four categories: mild, moderate, severe, and profound. In addition to disagreements about the basic nature of intelligence, psychologists have spent a great amount of time and energy debating the various influences on individual intelligence. endobj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� endobj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� Intelligence Unit 3 > Individual Differences Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. endobj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� 34 0 obj IQ and the wealth of nations. Science, 274(5291), 1296. ), Handbook of cultural psychology (pp. Psychology in Our Social Lives, 34. Retrieved from–FINAL%2020%20June%202013.pdf, Reich, D. (2018, March 23). 21 0 obj 'Individual differences’ seems an innocuous term, but the normalising of differential psychology is relatively recent in Britain. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� � �z@� �0&�2�Գ��ɹ One environmental factor that may affect how individuals perform and achieve is their expectations about their ability at a task. Experimental psychologists seem embarrassed and annoyed by individual differences, which they often treat as error variances (Furnham, 2008). Terman and the gifted. /XObject <> 2.1 Psychologists Use the Scientific Method to Guide Their Research, 9. 4.2 Altering Consciousness With Psychoactive Drugs, 21. 38 0 obj 27 0 obj 7 0 obj In L. M. Glidden (Ed. In psychology, these are called individual differences referring to the extent and kind of variations or similarities among people on some of the important psychological aspects such as intelligence, personality, interest, and aptitude. 3.6 Genes and Environments: Nature and Nurture, 19. endobj Psychological Bulletin, 126(3), 424–453. 2.3 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics, III. <> This chapter will introduce you to some of the fundamentals of individual differences. stream Brains, Biology, and Behaviour, 12. Were Lawrence Summers’s ideas about the potential causes of differences between men and women in math and hard sciences careers offensive to you? 101–135). � 8.3 Cognitive Processes That May Lead to Inaccuracy, 42. <> 24 0 obj A particular vulnerability of people with low IQ is that they may be taken advantage of by others, and this is an important aspect of the definition of mental retardation (Greenspan, Loughlin, & Black, 2001). endstream � �z@� �0& endobj Croizet, J.-C., & Claire, T. (1998). In this chapter, some of the fundamental ideas and research findings related to individual differences in intelligence and thinking will be discussed. To study gifted children, Lewis Terman and Melita Oden (1959) selected about 1,500 high school students who scored in the top 1% on the Stanford-Binet and similar IQ tests (i.e., who had IQs of about 135 or higher), and tracked them for more than seven decades; the children became known as the “termites” and are still being studied today.
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